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Ecology

09/07/2010

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Tundra Biome - Comes for the word “treeless plant”

·         Low biotic diversity

·         Cold molded plain

·         Extremely Cold

·         Simple vegetation structure

2 kinds of TUNDRA’S

·         Alpine

·         Artic

Artic Tundra

·         Located in the northern hemisphere

·         The growing season is 50 – 60 days

·         Average winter temperature is 30º - 34º Fahrenheit

·         Summer temperature is 35º - 55º Fahrenheit

Families Of An Artic Tundra

·         Herbivore Mammals

·         Carnivorous Mammals

·         Migratory Birds (Ravens, Flacons, and etc.)

·         Insects

·         Bugs

Location Of Artic Tundra:

·         North America (Northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland)

·         North Europe (Scandinavia)

·         North Asia (Siberia)

Vegetations:

·         Short shrubs and grasses
       Permafrost is the bottom layer of ground


Wildlife

·         Animals which adapt to the cold winter

·         Large animals migrate to hotter places

·         While smaller animal dig a hole to stay warm and cozy when too cold

Alpine Tundra

·         Cold climate region

·         Temperature is below freezing at night

·         Very windy, speeds exceeds 100 miles per hour

·         Can be seen in anywhere with a high elevation

·         Also places that are tropic areas (2 season)

Located Alpine Tundra

·         North America (Alaska, Canada, USA, and Mexico)

·         North Europe (Finland, Russia, Norway, and Sweden)

·         South Asia (Himalayan Mountains and Mount Fuji)

Vegetation

·         Tropical Alpine Tundra’s are treeless plains

·         It consists of short shrubs, lichens, mosses, sedges, perennial forbs, and rosette

Wildlife  

·         They migrate to lower elevations for the winter

·         Animals: marmots, mountain goats, bighorn sheep, elk, grizzly bear, springtail, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies

Coniferous Forest

·         Also known by the name “boreal” and “taiga”

·         Covers 15% land in the earth

·         Located in the Northern Hemisphere

-          Across America, Europe, and Asia

·         Usually produces their seeds in cones

Description

·         Often cover mountainsides

·         Have many plants and vegetations

·         Thousand lakes and swamps

Vegetations

·         Primarily posses pine needles

·         Contains very little sap

Types

·         Open lichen woodland which has trees spaces far apart with lichen growing between them

·         Closed forest which have trees very close together and a shaded moss covered forest floor

Weather

·         Most precipitation in the forest arrives in summer. (12 – 33 inches yearly)

Threats

·          Clear-cut logging

·         High intensity hunting, trapping

Wildlife

·         Wolves

·         Lynxes

·         Owl

·         Bear

·         Moose/ Elk

 Deciduous Forest

·         Has 4 seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter)

·         Can be found in the eastern half of North America (In the middle of Europe and Asia)

·         Some major areas are in Southwest Russia, Japan, eastern China, and Middle East Coast of Paraguay

·         Some minor’s are in New Zealand and southern Australia

Tree stratum contains

·         Oak, beech, maple, chestnut, and hickory

Weather

·         Temperature is 50º F

·         The average rainfall is 30 to 60 inches a year

Rainforest

·         It rains a lot

·         Most of the animals live in the forest (Beavers, bears, deer, snake, and etc.)

·         Largest Pharmacy

·         Use to cover 14% of the earth, now 6%

 

Grasslands

·         Greensward

·         Mostly grass

·         They’re 3 different types of Grassland (Tall, Mixed, and Short)

Locations

·         Found in every continent except Antarctica

·         Regions which have 30º - 50º

·         Exist naturally in a land which rainfalls a lot

Weather

·         Extremely hot in the summer

·         Extremely cold in the winter (reaches 20º - 30º)

·         Gets 10 – 30 inches of rain every year

Grasslands type

·         Tropical and Subtropical

·         Temperature

·         Flooded Grasslands

Desert

·         Cold and Hot

·         The biggest desert is Antartic Desert

Weather:

·         Cold desert reaches -2º to 4º while in summer it reaches 21º - 26º

·         Hot desert reaches (maximum is 43.4º to 49º C, minimum is -18º
       (IT IS HOT, BECAUSE WHEN THE CLOUDS REACHES IT, IT IS OUT OF WATER)

 


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